Craig Levein paid for a poor run of results when he was sacked as Scotland manager by the Scottish Football Association (SFA) on Monday.
"The Scottish FA tonight announces that Craig Levein has been relieved of his duties as Scotland National Coach," said an SFA statement.
The former Scotland defender guided the Scots to just three wins in his 12 competitive matches in charge after replacing fellow former international George Burley in 2009.
And with Scotland bottom after four matches in their qualifying group for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil, their chances of reaching the finals of a major tournament for the first time since the 1998 edition in France are hanging by a thread.
Under-21 coach Billy Stark will take caretaker charge for next week's friendly against Luxembourg.